Bone Histology

Research conducted as part of a larger project to examine archaeological evidence from the Alder Creek campsite, has found physical evidence that the Donner Party who were trapped by a snowstorm in the Sierra Nevada Mountains in the mid-1840s consumed their livestock, supplemented their diet with wild game, and may have eaten the family dog.

I studied the osseous remains from a hearth at the Donner Family’s Alder Creek campsite, one of two major Donner Party camps, which was excavated by a team of archaeologists from the University of Montana and the University of Oregon. During the excavation of the Donner Party’s Alder Creek campsite, 16,000 burned, fragmented bones were found. Many of the bones also had butchery and boiling marks. My students and I examined the bones with three questions in mind: Are there any human bones in the hearth, which would provide material evidence for cannibalism? What kinds of other animals are present in the assemblage of bone fragments? and, What did the starvation diet look like?

The Donner Party has long been infamous for reportedly resorting to cannibalism after becoming trapped in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California for months during the winter of 1846-1847. The party, which included 81 men, women and children, became stranded after a series of bad decisions and misfortunes caused numerous delays on their westward migration route and left them attempting to cross the mountains into California just as the first snows were falling in early October 1846.

In 2003, archaeologists Kelly Dixon (University of Montana) and Julie Schablitsky (University of Oregon) uncovered a hearth during the excavation of the Donner family’s campsite. Within the hearth, they found thousands of tiny burned fragments of bone, most measuring less than a quarter inch in diameter.

In 2004, I was a graduate student completing my PhD at the University of Oregon. I was asked to determine whether the bones were human. A preliminary analysis of the bones was completed in 2006, after I returned to the United States from dissertation research in India. This early analysis of 30 specimens indicated that there were no human bones from the hearth.

Upon joining the faculty at Appalachian, I continued my research on the remains. With a team of undergraduate students, I pored through the tiny fragments looking for remains that could withstand further testing. The majority of bone fragments were so small and so delicate that they would crumble if subjected to thin sectioning, but there were about 250 larger, sturdier pieces of bone that showed evidence of cutting, chopping and boiling. Of these, 55 additional fragments were studied.

My students produced thin sections from these specimens and examined them using a microscope, measuring each basic structural unit and characterizing the tissue types. From this work, we determined that humans were not among the food refuse examined.

A power analysis indicated that, statistically, we can be 70 percent confident that if cannibalism made up a small fraction of the diet (less than 1 percent) at the site in the last few weeks of occupation, and if humans were processed in the same way animals were processed, at least one of the 85 bone fragments examined would be human.

So, what did the Donner family eat during that winter? We identified the remains of cattle, deer, horse, and a canine that may have been a dog. While the historical record had indicated that cattle were the principal means of subsistence during that winter, there was no direct historic evidence that the Donner family also survived on deer and dog, and only a suggestion that they consumed their horses.

The legend of the Donner Party was primarily created by survivor accounts and members of the relief parties. In all, 47 people lived to tell the tale: 11 men and 36 women and children. Survivors and relief parties reported that some members of the party resorted to cannibalism, though, in their later years, some survivors denied this.

The archaeological record provides a new picture of the party’s activities. In the trash and debris left around the hearth, archaeologists found pieces of slate and shards of broken teacups and dinner plates. These pieces of slate and broken dishes around the hearth suggest the Donner’s participation in daily activities such as food consumption and writing.  This research will be published in the July issue of the journal American Antiquity. The archaeology team also is finishing a book to be published by the University of Oklahoma Press.


The Donner Party Archaeological Project website

Powerpoint presentation of the preliminary results of our analysis of bones from the Alder Creek Campsite of the Donner Party


Dental Histology

In 2000, I completed my master's research on dental histological age estimation for a prehistoric archaeological sample from Damdama, a Mesolithic site in India (8000-5000 BC). Damdama is a Mesolithic cemetery on the Gangetic Plain (26o 10’ N latitude and 82o 10’ E longitude ), which was excavated in 1982-1987 by J.N. Pal and a team of archaeologists from Allahabad University. The site (8750 m2 with a deposit of cultural material 1.5 m deep) yielded 48 burials, microliths, bone objects, querns, mullers, hammer stones, burned clay lumps, charred grains and faunal remains. The sample for my study consisted of 29 teeth belonging to 18 adult individuals. The teeth were sectioned in the MD plane and age was estimated using methods based on dental attrition, root dentine translucency, and cementum annulations (Johanson 1971; Maples 1978; Charles et al 1986, Lorentsen and Solheim 1989; Kashyap and Rao 1990; Drusini 1990). The histological methods were then compared to one another and with the previous age estimates based on a suite of macroscopic methods including dental eruption timing, dental attrition, changes in pelvic morphology, cranial sutures, epiphyseal suture closure, and degenerative changes to postcranial morphology (Lukacs et al. in press). To determine whether histological methods that were developed from forensic samples and dental extractions, are applicable to prehistoric archaeological material, the following research questions were posed:

  1. Are the methods relatively accurate in relationship to one another and to the multifactorial macroscopic age estimates made previously?
  2. Are the methods internally consistent in tests of observer error? 
  3. Are there significant differences between multiple teeth available from the same individuals?
  4. Are there detectable systematic biases within the methods, such as over-aging young individuals and under-aging older individuals? 
  5. As all of these methods use the same few anatomical structures, is a comparison of the results informative about individual methodological problems?
  6. Given diagenesis, are the original protocols directly applicable to this sample or are there necessary modifications?
  7. Can use of these methods improve the accuracy of the paleodemographic profile for Damdama through inclusion of individuals for whom age could not previously be estimated specifically?

The results of this analysis indicate that a count of the cementum annulations is feasable for archaeological populations. Cementum annulations yield age estimates with a 98% correlation with known age at death in modern samples (Charles et al 1998). The annulations accumulate approximately annually and have a slope only slightly less than 1 in maximum likelihood analysis for modern populations (Ibid.). Given an intact periodontium and no evidence of pathological destruction of the root surface, this method appears to be the best hope for a chronometric measure of age at death in archaeological populations.

Table of Contents
Micrograph of cementum annulations in a prehistoric tooth
Full Text pdf

Robbins, G. (2004). Mesolithic Damdama, dental histology and age estimation. Allahabad: Dept. of Ancient History, Culture & Archaeology, University of Allahabad.

Available on WorldCat by OCLC: 60453955 




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